Diagnostic and surgical hysteroscopy

Hysteroscopy is a surgical technique that allows the diagnosis and treatment of uterine cavity pathologies. Like any surgical procedure, it requires sedation or anesthesia to perform it. A lens (Hysteroscope lens) of small size is then introduced through the cervix and the uterine cavity is distended with a liquid medium, usually a saline solution that allows the observation of the inside of the uterus. Depending on the type of hysteroscope, the procedure will be diagnostic or surgical.

The diagnostic hysteroscopy as such, is the visual examination of the cervix and the inside of the uterus, using a lighted thin tube called a hysteroscope. It allows easy access to the cervix and uterus, allowing evaluation of the lining of these structures and pathologies that may be altering the uterine cavity, such as polyps, myomas, malformations or scars and adhesions.

During the procedure therapeutic maneuvers can be performed, such as taking a tissue sample (biopsy), removing polyps or myomas, resection of partitions or scars, or preventing bleeding with cauterization (destruction of the tissue by means of electric current, freezing, heat or chemicals).

The diagnostic hysteroscopy can be done with local anesthesia or without any type of anesthesia (each time less procedures) at the physician’s office

In the surgical hysteroscopy, the hysteroscope equipment is of greater thickness and it will be necessary to perform surgery in the operating room because it requires cervical dilatation and therefore sedation.

It is indicated when the following are suspected:

  • Uterine adhesions
  • Endometrial polyps
  • Myomas
  • Uterine septum
  • IUD extraction and other devices
  • Menstrual disturbances
  • Implantation failures
  • Prior to the onset of high complexity fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization
  • Recurrent pregnancy losses
  • Among others

As with any surgical procedure, complications may arise in a hysteroscopy. Some possible complications may include:

  • Infection
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Perforation of the uterus (rare)/damage to the cervix
  • Complications of the fluid or gas used to expand the uterus

The patient may have slight vaginal bleeding and colic one to two days after the procedure.

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